12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COMMON INDIAN SPICES
The two biggest threats faced by today's medical community are antibiotic resistance and multi drug resistant pathogens. In the present research, to counter these risks, the antimicrobial function of spices has been explored as an alternative to antibiotics. Methanol and acetone extract of 5 Indian spices were screened for antibacterial properties in search of a bioactive compound. The choice of spices as an alternative is based on two fundamental reasons: firstly, since ancient times, plants have been the model source of medicine and, secondly, the growing acceptance by the general population of herbal medicines. To establish the antibacterial properties of the spices, methanolic, ethanolic and acetone extracts were used in this work. The antibacterial activity of five traditional Indian spices against Vibrio species, namely cloves, ajwain, fennel, cumin and asafoetida. The results showed that spice methanol extracts (MIC values of 20-100 μl / ml) have a high degree of antimicrobial activity on all test species (inhibition range, 6-16 mm) compared to spice acetone extracts of the same concentration. The findings concluded that these spices contain strong secondary metabolites and they have high antimicrobial activity due to these metabolites and can be used as a good bio-preservative and can also be used for medicinal purposes.