Vol. 1, Issue 1A

Current Issues

1. NANO HERBAL MEDICINES: A REVIEW

Plants and herbs have been used since long for curative/ healing purposes of human ailments. According to the World Health Organization, 80% of people in developing countries depend on traditional medicinal practices to meet and/or supplement their basic health needs due to the enormous diversity of structures of medicinal plants, their chemical composition, popular uses and fewer side effects. Herbal medicines have been widely adaptable since ancient time, especially in India because of their better therapeutic value for various diseases (like curcumin, periwinkle, reseveratol, quercetin etc.) with lesser side effects as compare to conventional medicines along with their easy metabolization into the body. Nanotechnology is a novel approach for phytopharmaceuticals to deliver the components in a sustained manner in the form of nano sized novel drug delivery carriers (like nanopartices, liposomes, dendrimers, ethosomes, nanoemulsion, micelles, micro emulsions, quantum dots etc.) which is considerable importance to improves bioavailability, patient compliance and other constrains of herbal medicines by bypassing all the barriers like deterioration of drug due to acidic pH, liver metabolism, toxic effects etc.

Keywords - Herbal medicine, Nanotechnology, Nano sized novel drug delivery system

Author - Deeksha Sahai* and Pushpendra Kannojia

Affiliation - BIU College of Pharmacy, Bareilly International University, Bareilly-243006 (Uttar Pradesh), India

2. A REVIEW ON EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS FOR ANXIETY DISORDERS IN RATS

Anxiety has a profound influence on both human and animal behaviour. Both the psychological and biological aspects of anxiety are needed for anxiolytic drug evaluation. Animal models are used as screening methods in the search for compounds with therapeutic potential in the field of anxiety research and as simulations for research on processes that underlie emotional actions. Animal models of anxiety have been optimised mainly for rats, with a mixed performance for mice, an easy-to-use mammal with stronger genetic possibilities than rats. We based on the most commonly used animal models for anxiety in mice in this study. To reflect all types of animal models of anxiety, both conditioned and unconditioned models are highlighted. Strong care for variable parameters, linked to climate, handling or model, is needed in behavioural studies. In order to facilitate more understanding of neurobiological aspects of anxiety, we study the latest experimental anxiety models such as elevated plus maze apparatus, light dark model, open field apparatus, holeborad apparatus.

Keywords - Anxiety model, Elevated zero maze, Plus maze, Elevated T maze, light and dark box model and Mirrored chamber

Author - Amit Gupta*, Kamal Kishore Maheshwari, Rajat Yadav and Ishan Bansal

Affiliation - Department of Pharmacology, BIU College of Pharmacy, Bareilly International University, Bareilly-243006 (Uttar Pradesh), India

3. NANO-PARTICLES MUCO-ADHESIVE: AN OVERVIEW CHALLENGE FACED BY THE MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE

The adjustment of mucoadhesion at the nanoscale is an exceptionally testing undertaking previously the definition researchers. Mucoadhesive nanoparticles are enriched with particular properties, for example, expanded home, personal contact of mucoadhesive measurement structure at the mucosal surface, and reproducible medication assimilation. The huge surface region, permeable endothelial film, high absolute bloodstream, prepared availability, the fast beginning of an activity, low catalyst level contrasted with gastrointestinal tract, and evasion of hepatic first-pass digestion are not many of the significant explanations behind favoured medication conveyance over the nasal mucosal layer. There is a restricted orderly outlined writing is accessible which could diagram the capability of mucoadhesive nanoparticles for the intranasal organization also, the present audit could be a phenomenal stage to satisfy the voids. The creators put a very energetic sentiment that the nasal mucoadhesive. Nanocarriers would meet the criteria set by administrative specialists and soon such details would be accessible to achieve the mending wants of the network, gave an effective execution of broad clinical look into with empowering results.

Keywords - Nanotechnology, Nanoparticles, Mucoadhesion, Intranasal Drug Delivery System and Liposomes

Author - Prashant Kumar Sharma*, Rajat Yadav, Nidhi Singh3 and Rajat Bharti

Affiliation - Department of Pharmacy, ANA Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Bareilly- 243001 (Uttar Pradesh), India

4. A MINI REVIEW ON CHENOPODIUM ALBUM LINN.

Vegetables can form the cheapest and most readily available sources of important vitamins, minerals, fibres, and essential amino acids in most developing countries where the daily diet is dominated by starchy staple foods. Chenopodium album Linn. (Chenopodiaceae) is an annual shrub which is widely grown in Europe, North America, Asia and Africa and used as a folk medicine. Chenopodium album L. (Family Chenopodiaceae), a globally distributed noxious weed that is a large genus widely known as white goosefoot and fat-hen, melde, pigweed, lambsquarters, or local names. It is a nutraceutical product, which is an alternative nutrient source. Apart from alkaloids, trigonelline, chenopodine, potassium and vitamin C, the plant contains essential oils, complete phenol flavonoid glycosides (quercetin, rutin and kaempferol). Nonpolar lipids, phenols, and lignins, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, and saponins are the main class of phytoconstituents. This analysis provides a detailed account of the recorded morphology, phytochemical constituents, medicinal uses to explore this plant's immense medicinal potential.

Keywords - Chenopodium album Linn. Morphology, Phytochemistry, Medicinal uses

Author - Rohit Kumar Bijauliya*, Prashant Kumar Singh, Wasim Ahmad Khan and Balbir Singh

Affiliation - BIU College of Pharmacy, Bareilly International University, Bareilly-243006 (Uttar Pradesh), India

5. OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE BIOAVAILABILITY OF THE EYE

Topical eye therapy administration is suitable because of the smaller doses that are needed compared to systemic use, its rapid onset of action and the freedom from systemic toxicity. Because of the blood ocular barrier, the route of choice for treating ophthalmic diseases is by the topical method. Ideal delivery of ophthalmic drugs must be able to withstand the release of the drug and stay close to the front of the eye for extended period of time. The solutions, liquids and ointments which are fairly inefficient as therapeutic systems are the most widely used traditional preparations of ophthalmic dosing types. The efforts lead to the development of novel modes of dosage delivery such as formulations of nanoparticles, liposomes, and niosomes. This analysis based on the controlled and sustained delivery of drugs has become the norm in modern pharmaceutical design and many alternative drug delivery routes into the ocular tissues.

Keywords - Ophthalmic preparation, Ocular Drug Delivery System, Anatomy and physiology of eye

Author - Sonam Baghel*, Devender Singh, Sakshi Tiwari, Deepak Yadav, Prabhakar and Shishu Pal

Affiliation - Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi-284128 (Uttar Pradesh), India

6. A REVIEW ON PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CITRUS PARADISI

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) is an important member of Citrus genus from family Rutaceae. It has been used as a folk medicine in many countries as anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, analgesic activity, antibacterial activity, antitumor activity, anti-amnesic activity, anxiolytic activity, nephroprotective activity, anti-HIV activity, antitubercular activity, antieosinophilic activity, anti-snake venom activity. Now days an herbal and traditional medicines mostly used in all over the world according to WHO, about 60 to 65% world population practicing herbal and traditional medicines. Plant have many chemical constituents as flavonoids, volatile oil, triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignan, flavones, glycosides, iridoid glycosides and stilbene derivative. These chemical constituents are present in each part of the plant. The traditional use of Citrus paradise as internal fruit peel is used to treat for malaria, gastro-protective and antiulcer. Citrus fruit peel is 1000 times sweeter than sucrose. This review article provides a depth information related to plant morphology, cultivation, chemical constitutes, pharmacological activities and their medicinal uses.

Keywords - Grapefruit, Antioxidant, Flavonoids, Antidepressant, Antibacterial activity, Terpines

Author - Yogendra Singh*, S. Ramasamy and Mohd Ruman Khan

Affiliation - Department of Pharmacology, BIU College of Pharmacy, Bareilly International University, Bareilly-243006 (Uttar Pradesh), India

7. ROLE OF MICROEMULSION IN ADVANCED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

Microemulsions are transparent, solid, isotropic blends of oil, water, and surfactant, often mixed with a co-surfactant. It serves as potential drug carrier systems for administering orally, topically, and parenterally. This has gained a lot of coverage not only for extended release but also for targeting drugs to a particular site. They are susceptible to sustained and targeted delivery, in addition to oral and intravenous delivery, through ophthalmic, dental, pulmonary, vaginal, and topical routes. Specific poorly water soluble delivered by oral route also found increased bioavailability. We show effective topical delivery mechanisms for various active pharmaceutical ingredients for both the therapeutic and cosmetic applications. The topical it shows very quick penetration of the active molecules which is mainly due to the wide surface area of the internal process, their contents also reduce the stratum corneum's barrier property. They have “great applications and uses in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, cutting oils, biotechnology, food, cosmetics, analytical applications, detoxification” of the environment etc. The main aim of this review paper is to describe microemulsions with other possible applications as a drug carrier system.

Keywords - Microemulsions, Characterization, Drug Delivery, Application

Author - Ajay Rastogi* and Rohit Kumar Bijauliya

Affiliation - Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi-284128

8. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON NIOSOME FOR NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

The concept of targeted delivery of drugs is designed to try to concentrate the drug in the tissues of interest while reducing the relative concentration of the drug in the remaining tissues. As a result, on the targeted location, drug is placed. Hence, the medication does not affect underlying tissues. In fact, product failure does not occur due to drug localization, contributing to optimum drug efficacy. Different drug targeting carriers have been used, such as immunoglobulin, serum proteins, synthetic polymers, liposomes, microspheres, erythrocytes, and niosomes. Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles obtained by a hydrating cholesterol and non-ionic surfactant mixture. It can be used as amphithelial and lipophilic drug carriers. The medicine is encapsulated in a vesicle in a drug delivery network of niosomes. Niosomes are biodegradable, non-immunogenic biocompatible, and demonstrate versatility in their structural characterisation. The main aim of this analysis is to use niosome technology to treat a variety of diseases, niosomes have good research opportunities and support the science and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords - Niosomes, Method of preparation, Evaluation study, Application of Niosomes

Author - Prabhakar*, Devender Singh, Sanju Kumari and Deepak Yadav

Affiliation - Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi-284128 (Uttar Pradesh), India

9. ORIGIN, SYMPTOMS, TRANSMISSION AND PRECAUTIONARY CONTROL OF PANDEMIC CORONAVIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19): A MINI REVIEW

In the mid of December 2019, a novel human coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was discovered in Wuhan, Hubei Province of China. On February 12, 2020, WHO named the disease caused by the novel coronavirus as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Corona viruses are a group of viruses that can cause illnesses from common cold to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) or pneumonia like symptoms. Mode of transmission from one body to another remains frequent and includes coughing, shaking hands, touching contaminated surfaces and getting in contact with infected pets/animals. It generates symptoms from common cold to pneumonia like symptoms. Persons with existing medical conditions worsen condition by serious illness. As there is no vaccine or approved treatment therefore by applying precautionary measures, we can forbid us from the risk of getting infected.

Keywords - nCoV-19, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Transmission, Treatment

Author - Neha Pathak* and Pushpendra Kannojia

Affiliation - BIU College of Pharmacy, Bareilly International University, Bareilly-243006 (Uttar Pradesh), India

10. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF CURRENT STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING ACETAZOLAMIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

In this work 3 very sensitive and effective (Zero order, AUC, HPLC and spectroscopy) has been developed to assess the Acetazolamide in bulk & pharmaceutical formulation. For the measurement of Acetazolamide in pharmaceutical formulations, a simple, precise and accurate Zero-order relative Spectroscopy approach was established and tested. Going to weigh 100 mg of Regular Acetazolamide in 10 ml volumetric flask with DMSO, prepared the stock solution. The final solution for stock was made with distilled water to produce 10000 mcg/ml. As per the protocol more dilutions have been prepared. The solution for the drug showed maximum absorbance at 262 nm. The linearity was observed within the range of concentrations of 100-600 mcg/ml. The Coefficient of Correlation was 0.999. It was noticed that the regression model is Y=0.0003c + 0.00075. The results were validated for predictability, accuracy, detection limit, linear range and roughness. The detection limit and quantitation limit for Acetazolamide estimation were found to be 2.34 (mcg/ml) and 20.65 (mcg/ml), respectively. Acetazolamide restoration was reported to be in the 89.0 percent range – 100 percent.

Keywords - Acetazolamide, Chromatography, validation, Spectroscopy

Author - Divya Tiwari*, Ankit Seth and Aditya Singh

Affiliation - Aryakul College of Pharmacy & Research, Lucknow- 226002 (Uttar Pradesh), India

11. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT MILK BRAND IN BAREILLY REGION

In everyday life, milk is an important commodity. It is not only a source of protein of high quality, but also, in addition to other nutrients, a source of calcium and riboflavin. Milk is the product that is most commercially marketed by both local vendors and supermarkets. Because of the rules laid down by the FSSAI, the majority of labelled goods are of sufficient quality in the goods marketed. However, such adulterants are added to local products to increase the yield, which can affect the nutritional quality of the milk. Therefore, to understand the operation, Amul Milk, Mother Dairy Milk, T20milk, Ananda Milk, Cow and Buffalo Milk were the current study aimed at understanding adulteration in 6 selected local milk samples selected. In most milk water content, the adulteration observed mainly in T20 Milk, and Ananda milk was adulterated with some vendors is more, but urea was also observed in few samples. Therefore, the study clearly showed that milk from local vendors had adulterated samples.

Keywords - Adulteration, Milk safety, Detergent in milk, Quality of milk products, Nutrients, Riboflavin

Author - Sunny Patel*, Rohit Kumar Bijauliya, Sachin Shrivastava and Pankaj Rai

Affiliation - Department of Biotechnology, Invertis University, Bareilly-243123 (Uttar Pradesh), India.

12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COMMON INDIAN SPICES

The two biggest threats faced by today's medical community are antibiotic resistance and multi drug resistant pathogens. In the present research, to counter these risks, the antimicrobial function of spices has been explored as an alternative to antibiotics. Methanol and acetone extract of 5 Indian spices were screened for antibacterial properties in search of a bioactive compound. The choice of spices as an alternative is based on two fundamental reasons: firstly, since ancient times, plants have been the model source of medicine and, secondly, the growing acceptance by the general population of herbal medicines. To establish the antibacterial properties of the spices, methanolic, ethanolic and acetone extracts were used in this work. The antibacterial activity of five traditional Indian spices against Vibrio species, namely cloves, ajwain, fennel, cumin and asafoetida. The results showed that spice methanol extracts (MIC values of 20-100 μl / ml) have a high degree of antimicrobial activity on all test species (inhibition range, 6-16 mm) compared to spice acetone extracts of the same concentration. The findings concluded that these spices contain strong secondary metabolites and they have high antimicrobial activity due to these metabolites and can be used as a good bio-preservative and can also be used for medicinal purposes.

Keywords - Spices, secondary metabolites, extracts, MIC, Zone of Inhibition

Author - Saurabh Kumar Gangwar* Sunny Patel and Sujeet Kumar Singh

Affiliation - Department of Biotechnology, Invertis University, Bareilly-243123 (Uttar Pradesh), India.

13. DETERMINATION OF THE QUALITY CONTROL PARAMETERS OF PARACETAMOL TABLETS IN INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

As drugs have to be marketed as safe and therapeutically active formulations with consistent and predictable outcomes, the quality of any pharmaceutical product is very important. Assessment of the physiochemical properties of pharmaceutical products will ensure the quality and bioavailability of pharmaceutical products and provide maximum therapeutic effectiveness. Paracetamol tablets were selected for this comparative study because they are widely used worldwide to treat moderate to severe pain and fever. This is one of several Indian pharmaceutical firms that typically manufacture and distribute medications. The study aims to compare the different physical parameters for quality assessment and tablet characterization of five different brands of Indian pharmaceutical companies, including weight variation, stiffness, friability, and time of disintegration. The indicated compendial approach was adopted for their assessment test.

Keywords - Paracetamol, Weight variation, Hardness, Friability, disintegration time

Author - Surjeet Singh Bhadouriya*, Atul Kaushik, Pushpendra Kannojia and Yogendra Singh

Affiliation - Institute of Professional Studies College of Pharmacy, Gwalior-474001 (Madhya Pradesh), India.

14. EVALUATION OF ANTI-ANXIETY ACTIVITY OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS (SATAVARI) IN RATS BY USING LIGHT AND DARK MODEL

Present research work was performed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus (Satawari) in rat by using light and dark model. Anti-anxiety potentials of extracts of Asparagus racemosus were compared with diazepam. Rats of either sex were divided into seven groups of 6 animals in each group. Group were distilled water, vehicle medium as 10% carboxy methyl cellulose (C.M.C), diazepam 2mg/kg, extract of Asparagus racemosus (50mg/kg), extract of Asparagus racemosus (100mg/kg), extract of Asparagus racemosus (200mg/kg) and diazepam + effective dose of Asparagus racemosus (200 mg/kg). All the test solutions were freshly prepared daily and administered to animals for 7 days by oral route. After 7th day, each animal was checked to anxiety by using light and dark model. The extracts of Asparagus racemosus 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and diazepam 2 mg/kg + Asparagus racemosus 200 mg/kg treated group shows significant (p<0.05) different reduced spend time in dark chamber of light and dark model as comparison with control group. Extracts of Asparagus racemosus 50mg/kg did not show significant (p<0.05) different reduced spend time in dark chamber of light and dark model as comparison with control group. Extract of Asparagus racemosus 200mg/kg with diazepam 2mg/kg gives synergetic anxiolytic activity in rats.

Keywords - Asparagus racemosus, Satavari, Anxiety, Diazepam, Light and Dark Model and Anxiolytic activity

Author - Rajat Yadav*, Kamal Kishore Maheshwari, Amit Gupta and Ishan Bansal

Affiliation - Shri Ram Murti Smarak College of Engineering & Technology (Pharmacy), Bareilly- 243202 (Uttar Pradesh), India.

15. PRE-FORMULATION STUDIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIPOSOME BASED SUSTAINED RELEASE DELIVERY SYSTEM AS ANTICANCER DRUG

To address the disadvantages of traditional drug delivery methods, there are several approaches available for the design and production of formulations for extended- release drug delivery. Such drug delivery systems are mainly intended to enhance disease control by altering the pharmacokinetic profiles of therapeutic agents usually administered as traditional tablets or capsules. Preformulation is a study which deals with the structure for the combination of drug with pharmaceutical ingredients in dosage form manufacturing. The analysis of preformulation is to create the elegant dosage form by determining the kinetic rate profile, compatibility with the other ingredients, defining the new drug 's physicochemical parameter and polymorphism. The pre-formulation also provides details on the organoleptic property, solubility, melting point and drug-related partition coefficient, drug stability, drug absorbance, and analysis of FTIR among these properties. As the 6-mercaptopurine is a very powerful medication, this medication is used by many researchers in their work. This research paper helps those people who want to use 6-mercaptopurin for development of new formulation related to this drug.

Keywords - 6-Mercaptopurine, Preformulation study, Sustain Release system, Liposome

Author - Kriti Pateriya* and Rohit Kumar Bijauliya

Affiliation - Department of Pharmaceutics, Babu Banarasi Das University, Lucknow- 243900 (Uttar Pradesh), India.

16. AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM (GARLIC) LEAVES FOR ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITY6

Garlic (Allium sativum) the Liliaceae family, is among the oldest of all cultivated plants. It has been used as a medicinal agent for thousands of years. The crude aqueous extract of leaves of Allium sativum (Liliaceae) was using extraction of plant, preliminary phytochemical investigation, Chromatographic technique, and antifungal activity. An attempt has been made to highlight this folk herbal medicine through present study which will assist in the identification of fresh as well as dried crude samples of leaves physiochemically. TLC fingerprint profiling and antifungal activity is reported. Results show that plant rich in tannin and phenolic compounds have been shown to posse’s antifungal activities against a number of microorganisms.

Keywords - Garlic (Allium sativum), Cultivated, Extraction, Phytochemical screening, Fingerprint, Chromatographic, Antifungal activity

Author - Sunny Patel*, Prakash Chandra Tiwari, Rohit Kumar Bijauliya and Dinesh Kumar Prajapati

Affiliation - Department of Biotechnology, Invertis University, Bareilly-243123 (Uttar Pradesh), India.

17. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING MICROSPHERE OF NIZATIDINE

In the last three decades, oral controlled release dosage forms have been developed due to their major therapeutic benefits, such as ease of administration of patient compliance and flexibility in formulation. These factors contributed to the production in the gastrointestinal tract of a novel orally regulated release dosage form with Gastro retentive properties. Gastro retentive dosage forms (GRDFs) will stay in the gastric region for many hours, greatly increasing the period of drugs in the gastric field. Prolonged gastric retention increases bioavailability, reduces drug loss, and improves less soluble drug solubility in a high pH environment. Floating microspheres of Nizatidine were prepared by the solvent diffusion method of evaporation. The drug was encapsulated in various Eudragit and ethanol polymer ratio combinations. The prepared microspheres are evaluated for particle size, percent buoyancy, study of in-vitro release, and stability studies. The buoyancy level was found to be between 80.22% and 88.54%. The good buoyancy behaviour of the microspheres showed that the microspheres are hollow in nature and maintained for more than 12 hours in the upper part of the GIT to improve gastric residence time. In order to ensure in vivo efficacy, the formulations prepared should be clinically tested. The current study compared the combination of polymers and revealed their effect on the release of drugs and various other parameters in floating microsphere preparation.

Keywords - Floating, Microspheres, Gastroretentive, Nizatidine

Author - Mahendra Kushwaha*, Atul Kaushik, Priya Mishra and Yogendra Singh

Affiliation - Institute of Professional Studies College of Pharmacy, Gwalior-474001 (Madhya Pradesh), India.

18. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS FOR TESTING OF WATER IN BAREILLY REGION

A essential resource for human life is water. Water is highly contaminated with various pollutants because of population growth, advanced farming methods, industrialization, man-made activity. The availability of good quality water is an essential function for disease prevention and quality of life enhancement. The quality of drinking water should be reviewed at regular intervals, as the human population suffers varied of water borne diseases due to the use of polluted drinking water from. We know details about different physico-chemical parameters such as colour, MPN (Most Probable Number) test, H2S Test, Acidity test, Chloride test, pH test, Alkalinity test used for testing of water quality.

Keywords - Water, physico-chemical parameters, MPN (Most Probable Number) test, H2S Test, Acidity test, Chloride test, pH test, Alkalinity test, diseases, availability, contaminants

Author - Sunny Patel*, Shikha Saxena, Rohit Kumar Bijauliya and Sachin Shrivastava

Affiliation - Department of Biotechnology, Invertis University, Bareilly-243123 (Uttar Pradesh), India.

19. ENUMERATION AND ISOLATION OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING

The monitoring is done to check the bioburden of the aseptic area of the controlled environment. The purpose of this is to understand the various issues that is related to aseptic processing of bulk drug substance or finished products (sterile), dose forms, and in certain cases and to establishments maintenance and control of the microbiological quantity in the controlled environment. Environmental monitoring describes the processes and activities that need to take place to characterise and monitor the quality of the environment. Environmental monitoring is used in the preparation of environmental impact assessments, as well as in many circumstances in which human activities carry a risk of harmful effects on the natural environment. All monitoring strategies and programmes have reasons and justifications which are often designed to establish the current status of an environment or to establish trends in environmental parameters. In all cases the results of monitoring will be reviewed, analysed statistically, and published. The design of a monitoring programme must therefore have regard to the final use of the data before monitoring starts. The number of viable microorganisms detected during routine monitoring may be within the relevant acceptance limits. However, it is necessary to characterize and identify these microorganisms to their genus and species level. Also, and identification of different types of microbial isolates found during routine monitoring is required to check whether the microorganisms obtained are not objectionable types. Objectionable types microorganisms are the ones which may be detrimental to the product or the process or pathogenic in nature.

Keywords - Microorganisms, Isolation of microbes, Environmental monitoring

Author - Sunny Patel*, Rohit Kumar Bijauliya and Ravi Deval

Affiliation - Department of Biotechnology, Invertis University, Bareilly-243123 (Uttar Pradesh), India.

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